1 - Emission Levels - Building Biology Environmental Consultant - FEB 2012

2 – Emission Levels - Sage Report on Smart Meters – JAN 2011

3- Meters Violate FCC Limits

4- Havas Report on Smart Meters - JAN 2011

5 - ITRON SPECS for OpenWay Centron

6 - Emission from Hydro Quebec Smart Meter



Emission Levels of Itron OpenWay® Smart Meter in μW/m2 (900 MHz antenna)




Assessment of Radiofrequency

Microwave Radiation Emissions from Smart Meters

Sage Associates  Santa Barbara, CA  USA

January 1, 2011



  • How Smart Meters Work
  • Mandate
  • Purpose of this Report
  • Conditions that Affect Radiofrequency Radiation Levels from Meters
  • Framing Questions


  • Mesh Network
  • Smart Meter(s) and collector meters
  • Power Transmitters



  • FCC Bulletin OET 65 Guidelines (Time-Averaging Limits)
  • ANSI/IEEE C95.1-1992, 1999 (Peak Power Limits)



  • Tables A1 – A16 RF Power Density vs. Distance Tables
  • Tables A17-A32 (Nursery at 11” Summary Tables)
  • Tables A33-A48 (Kitchen at 28” Summary Tables)


  • Tables 1 – 33 – Data Tables, FCC Violation Tables, Health Comparisons


  • Sensitivity of the Eye and Testes to RF Radiation

PDF of This Report

Key Points from Sage Report

“Safe” Distances from Smart Meters:

Where are RF levels associated with smart meters in all their configurations (one meter, multiple smart meters, one collector meter, one collector plus multiple smart meters) above those recommended in the BioInitiative Report (2007)?

Tables 32 and 33 depict the distance from the center of radiation for the smart meter(s) and collector meter scenarios in feet. The distances (in feet) at which RF levels exceed the BioInitiative Report recommended limit of 0.1 uW/cm2 is as small as 3.4’ (one smart meter at 60% reflection and 1% duty cycle). At 60% reflection and 100% duty cycle, the distance to the BioInitiative recommended limit increases to 34 feet for one smart meter.

When multiples of smart meters are considered, the shortest distance to where the BioInitiative Report recommended limit is exceeded is 9.7 feet (for 60% reflection @ 1% duty cycle). It increases to 97’ @100% duty cycle for multiple smart meters.

For a single collector meter, the shortest distance to a BioInitiative Report exceedence is 5.9 feet (60% reflection @ 1% duty cycle). At 60% reflection and 100% duty cycle, it increases to 59 feet.

For a collector and multiple smart meters, the shortest distance is 10.9 feet at 60% reflection @ 1% duty cycle, and increases to 108 feet at 100% duty cycle.


January 7th, 2011


Grassroots Groups and Two Dozen Local Governments Renew Demand for Statewide Moratorium

San Francisco   – A study released today reports that wireless ‘smart’ meters being  installed by PG&E and other utilities in California are likely to violate Federal Communications Commission (FCC) safety limits as they are being installed and operated.  Further, the study found that excessively elevated radiofrequency radiation levels can be  expected throughout homes and businesses where ‘smart’ meters have been  installed, comparable to living within 200 – 600 feet of a major cell phone tower in many cases.  Health risks have been associated in some published studies to levels commensurate with those  of smart meters.  The study, carried out by consulting firm Sage and Associates, finds that associated health impacts may include neurological symptoms such as headache, sleep disruption,  restlessness, tremors, cognitive impairment, and tinnitus, as well as increased cancer risk and heart problems such as arrythmias, altered heart rhythms, and palpitations.[1] [2]

“This study represents an independent refutation of what PG&E and the other  utilities claim are insignificant exposures to microwave radiation from their  meters,” says Joshua Hart, Director of Stop Smart Meters!  “The reality is that ‘smart’ meters emit radiation of a
power and frequency that has been linked with DNA disruption,  pathological
leakage of the blood-brain barrier (which can lead to neuron death), and
many other health impacts.  This report is the final straw- if the CPUC refuses to act, Governor Brown must  order an immediate halt to installation and deactivation of installed meters pending open public hearings on how this debacle could have been approved in the first place.”

In other developments,  Marin County on Tuesday became the 4th local government, and 2nd county  in  California to pass an ordinance specifically outlawing installation of ‘smart’  meters- in large part due to health and safety issues. This unanimous  decision follows two successive Board of Supervisors meetings that were packed   with  outraged residents demanding that the County government pass legislation to protect human health.  It also follows a blockade of ‘smart’ meter trucks in West Marin last week that resulted in the arrests of two mothers who blocked installation to  protect the health of their children and community.

People across California have complained about ‘Smart’ meters since the beginning,  including widespread reports of inflated bills, privacy and hacking of personal information, electrical interference with cordless phones, baby monitors, home security systems and critical care equipment, and tripping of ground fault interrupters and arc fault interrupters on electrical wiring that is  needed to protect wiring from electrical surges.

In addition, there have been more than 2000 health complaints submitted to the CA Public Utilities Commission (CPUC). ‘Smart’ Meters use microwave radiation (similar to a cell phone) to transmit customer data back to the utility, and are being installed just as the public learns of evidence that brain tumors and other health damage can be traced to similar wireless devices.   The  CPUC, who sanctioned PG&E’s $2.2 billion program to install 10 million new meters throughout California at the expense of ratepayers, has not allowed individuals to opt out even in cases of  severe health impacts.

Nearly two dozen local governments* have called for a moratorium.  The CPUC’s own Division of Ratepayer Advocates (DRA) has
also demanded public hearings be held to study potential health risks resulting from exposure to radiation from the meters.

The full report can be downloaded at: http://sagereports.com/smart-meter-rf/

* California local governments demanding a moratorium include: the City and County of San Francisco, Santa Cruz and Marin County Board of Supervisors, Sonoma  County Supervisor Efren Carrillo, the cities of Sebastopol, Berkeley, San Rafael, Cotati, Fairfax, Santa Cruz, Piedmont, Scotts Valley, Capitola,
Watsonville, Sausalito, San Anselmo, Belvedere, Monte Sereno, Novato, Morro Bay, San Clemente, Richmond, Ross, Bolinas, and Camp Meeker.

[1] Khurana  VG Hardell L Everaert J  Bortkiewicz A
Carlberg M Ahonen M,  2010.  Epidemiological Evidence for a Health
Risk from Mobile Phone Base Stations. Int Journal of Occupational  Environmental Health 2010;16:263–267

[2] Kundi M Hutter HP  Mobile phone base stations—Effects on
wellbeing and health. Pathophysiology 16 (2009) 123–135

Joshua Hart
Director, Stop Smart Meters!




January 17, 2011.  The California Council on Science and Technology (CCST) recently released their report on Smart meters “Health Impacts of Radio Frequency from Smart Meters”.  Click here to download this document.

CCST invited me to submit a written report as part of a Technical Response Team in October 2010.  In December I was informed that neither my report nor any of the others would not be appended to the final report nor would they be made available to anyone.

My report does not support the final conclusions of the CCST report and I provide it here for anyone interested.  For a pdf copy click here.

My overall conclusions are as follows:

In conclusion, I have great concern regarding the current levels of microwave radiation in North America.  Instead of promoting wireless technology, we should be promoting wired technology and reserving wireless for situations where wired in not possible (while one is traveling for example). Shortly after X-rays were discovered, they were used in shoe stores to determine shoe-size for young children. Fortunately, we recognized that X-rays were harmful and we restricted their use to essential medical diagnoses. We need to recognize that microwaves are also harmful and we cannot use this technology in a frivolous manner. With more frequencies being used, with the levels of radiation increasing, and with so little research on the long-term, low-level effects of this technology we are creating a potential time bomb. If smart meters are placed on every home, they will contribute significantly to our exposure and this is both unwise and unsafe.


On July 30, 2010, California State Assembly Member Jared Huffman (San Rafael) asked the California Council on Science and Technology (CCST) to provide an assessment of the safety of Smart Meters.

On August 16, 2010, CCST agreed to compile and assess the evidence available to address the following two issues:

1.    Whether FCC standards for Smart Meters are sufficiently protective of public health taking into account current exposure levels to radiofrequency and electromagnetic fields.

2.   Whether additional technology specific standards are needed for Smart Meters and other devices that are commonly found in and around homes, to ensure adequate protection from adverse health effects.

On October 4, 2010, I was invited to be part of a Technical Response Team and, as part of that team, I was asked to provide a written response to two key concerns mentioned above.

On October 12, 2010, I submitted my report to CCST.

On December 13, 2010, I was informed that CCST was not appending any documents to their report, nor were they making these documents available to others, but they were recognizing those who contributed.

On January 11, 2011, CCST released their report “Health Impacts of Radio Frequency from Smart Meters” on their website: Click here to download this document.http://www.ccst.us/news/2011/20110111smart.php.

CCST is receiving public comments until January 31, 2011.



Itron OpenWay Wireless Communication Equipment underConsideration

The Itron OpenWay wireless communication equipment operates in the Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM)

bands at frequencies from 902 MHz to 928 MHz and from 2,400 MHz to 2,483 MHz.

Also, a small number ofdevices incorporate wireless modems operating at

frequencies 824-849 MHz and 1,850-1,910 MHz designated for

the cellular operators (Cell Relays constitute about 1% of all the OpenWay wireless

devices and can be mounted onpoles or as part of a meter).

This analysis will focus on the OpenWay CENTRON® smart meter.

The following table reflects the data contained within the Certification Exhibits for

FCC Rule Part: 15.247 for ItronOpenWay Smart Meters:


FCC Rule Part 15.247

Classification Digital Transmission System Transmitter

Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum Transmitter

Device Category Mobile

Environment General Population / Uncontrolled Exposure

Exposure Conditions: Greater than 20 centimeters (8 inches)

Frequency bands RF LAN 902 – 928 MHz

ZigBee 2,400 – 2,483.5 MHz

Transmitter Power* RF LAN 24.83dBm (304.09 mW) at 902.25 MHz

ZigBee 18.94 dBm (78.34 mW) at 2,475 MHz

Antenna Gain* RF LAN 2.2 dB (1.660 times) at 902.25 MHz

ZigBee 3.8 dB (2.399 times) at 2,475 MHz


*Values have been updated to reflect the latest meter hardware release (FCC ID: SK9AMI6)

The duty cycle (or amount of time a device is active in any given time period) will have a significant impact on the

long term exposure levels for a device. The Itron OpenWay smart meters are actively transmitting a very small

portion of the time. The maximum duty cycle for each transmitter is listed below:


Max Duty Cycle RF LAN 5%



(over period ZigBee 1%

of 30 minutes)

For the Itron OpenWay smart meters wireless communication equipment,

the MPE limits for continuous exposure

are as follows:


Frequency MPE level

Occupational              General population

RFLAN (902 MHz)       3.0 mW/cm 2 0.6 mW/cm2

Zigbee (2,400 MHz)      8.0 mW/cm 2 1.0 mW/cm2

More information about ITRON Smart Meters, from the website of SMUD (Sacramento Municipal Utility District ) shows the huge number signals sent each day. This can be controlled by the utility so Hydro’s numbers could be higher or lower, but these numbers are similar to those reported by other utilities. This is under question “Do smeters generate RF fields”?   More than 13,375 signals on average (one every 6 seconds), and maximum of 240,396 a day (2.8 signals every second). When using our RF meters, many of these signals are missed because they are too short (about 5 milliseconds long) and too strong (all but the most sophisticated and expensive meters max out.)


In September 2012, SMUD conducted a detailed analysis of the transmission frequency and weighted average “on air” time across the smart meters network. The results of the study are below :

Electric system message type

Transmission frequency per 24-hour period: Average

Transmission frequency per 24-hour period: Maximum (99.9th percentile)

Meter read data



Network management



Time sync



Mesh network message management



Weighted average duty cycle

61.4 seconds

1,262 seconds





Smart meters emit 2 types of radiation both of which are dangerous and to which many people are sensitive. As described in this article, measurements taken after installation of a smeter, even with the transmitter turned off, show high EMF on the home wiring. What would be extremely useful and telling would be to have the measurements taken in a home with an analog, and the later if/when the homeowner is forced to accept a smeter with or without the transmitter activated. Taking measurements in this manner would be proof of the increases due to the smeter.


The utility industry’s argument that smart (AMR, ERT) meters are safe must be rejected, because it relies on FCC testing for radiofrequency (RF) interference, which is not a safety testing protocol, and flawed FCC radiation exposure guidelines.  The FCC testing for smart meters is done in an isolated laboratory, divorced from the context in which these meters are intended to be used, connected to the wiring in a home or business.  

We present below compelling technical and empirical proof that, when these meters are used as intended, they cause an antenna effect, inflicting great harm to occupants inside their homes and businesses.  When used as intended, smart meters that appear to be safe in the testing laboratory are lethal.”








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