PubMed.gov  Electromagn Biol Med. 2016;35(4):393-7. doi: 10.3109/15368378.2015.1107839. Epub 2016 Jun 29.

Exacerbation of demyelinating syndrome after exposure to wireless modem with public hotspot.


In August 2003, 48-year-old JS of Colorado, USA, a fitness therapist and sports nutritionist, contracted neuroinvasive West Nile virus which left her with disabilities due to spinal axonal damage. In August 2014, she suddenly developed symptoms very much like her acute West Nile infection 11 years ago, including focal seizures, ataxia, vertigo and headaches. Her blood count looked normal so there was no obvious infection. What struck her as odd was that when she left her apartment for any length of time, the symptoms stopped. She found out that a new type of wireless modem, enabled for both personal use and functioning as a public hotspot designed to reach up to 100 m, had been installed in the flat under hers. Her neighbor replaced the modem with a router without the hotspot feature. After that, the seizures stopped immediately, and the other symptoms faded gradually, after which she was fine and again could sleep well. Later, when another activated hotspot was installed in an adjacent flat, JS once again noticed symptoms. A possible association between electrohypersensitivity, myelin integrity and exposure to low-intensity radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) typical in the modern world has recently been proposed. Since the West Nile virus attacks both the nerve cells and the glial ones, one explanation to the above observed case effects is that the initial virus attack and the wireless modem’s RF-EMF affect the nervous system through the very same, or similar, avenues, and maybe both via the oligodendrocytes.

KEYWORDS: Beacon signal; WiFi; electrohypersensitivity; hotspot; myelin; neurodegenerative disease; radiofrequency exposure; strobe effect


Electromagn Biol Med. 2014 Sep;33(3):206-10. doi: 10.3109/15368378.2013.801352. Epub 2013 Jun 19.

Health effects of living near mobile phone base transceiver station (BTS) antennae: a report from Isfahan, Iran.

Shahbazi-Gahrouei D1, Karbalae M, Moradi HA, Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi M.

Author information: Department of Medical Physics and Medical Engineering, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences , Isfahan , Iran.


BACKGROUND: In recent years, by tremendous use of mobile phone telecommunication, a growing concern about the possible health hazards has increased greatly among public and scientists. The mobile phone exposure has been shown to have many effects upon the immune functions, stimulating hormones, mammalian brain, sperm motility and morphology, and neurological pathologies syndrome. The aim of this study was to find out the psychological and psychobiological reactions of the people who are living near mobile phone base transceiver stations (BTS) antenna, in Isfahan, Iran.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study on 250 randomly selected inhabitants (133 women and 117 men) was performed in October 2012 till November 2012. The inhabitants were requested to complete a standardized questionnaire that focused on the relevant psychological and psychobiological reactions parameters. A computer program (SPSS version16.0, Chicago, IL) was used for statistical analysis using the Chi-square test with Yates correction. All the data were tested using a criterion level of p = 0.05.

RESULTS: The results showed that most of the symptoms such as nausea, headache, dizziness, irritability, discomfort, nervousness, depression, sleep disturbance, memory loss and lowering of libido were statistically significant in the inhabitants living near the BTS antenna (<300 m distances) compared to those living far from the BTS antenna (>300 m).

CONCLUSION: It is suggested that cellular phone BTS antenna should not be sited closer than 300 m to populations to minimize exposure of neighbors.

KEYWORDS: Electromagnetic field; health effects; microwave radiation; mobile phone BTS

PMID: 23781985 [PubMed - in process]



Does the Brain Detect 3G Mobile Phone Radiation Peaks? An Explorative In-Depth Analysis of an Experimental Study

Suzanne Roggeveen , Jim van Os, Richel Lousberg

Does the Brain Detect 3G Mobile Phone Radiation Peaks? An Explorative In-Depth Analysis of an Experimental Study

Suzanne Roggeveen, Jim van Os, Richel Lousberg

Published: May 11, 2015   http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125390


This study aimed to investigate whether third generation mobile phone radiation peaks result in event related potentials. Thirty-one healthy females participated. In this single-blind, cross-over design, a 15 minute mobile phone exposure was compared to two 15 minute sham phone conditions, one preceding and one following the exposure condition. Each participant was measured on two separate days, where mobile phone placement was varied between the ear and heart. EEG activity and radiofrequency radiation were recorded jointly. Epochs of 1200ms, starting 200ms before and lasting until 1000ms after the onset of a radiation peak, were extracted from the exposure condition. Control epochs were randomly selected from the two sham phone conditions. The main a-priori hypothesis to be tested concerned an increase of the area in the 240-500ms post-stimulus interval, in the exposure session with ear-placement. Using multilevel regression analyses the placement*exposure interaction effect was significant for the frontal and central cortical regions, indicating that only in the mobile phone exposure with ear-placement an enlarged cortical reactivity was found. Post-hoc analyses based on visual inspection of the ERPs showed a second significantly increased area between 500-1000ms post-stimulus for almost every EEG location measured. It was concluded that, when a dialing mobile phone is placed on the ear, its radiation, although unconsciously, is electrically detected by the brain. The question of whether or not this cortical reactivity results in a negative health outcome has to be answered in future longitudinal experiments.


Prof. Dr. Alexander Lerchl, Melanie Klose, Karen Grote, Adalbert F.X. Wilhelm, Oliver Spathmann, Thomas Fiedler, Joachim Streckert, Volkert Hansen, Markus Clemens

PII: S0006-291X(15)00398-8   DOI: Reference:  10.1016/j.bbrc.2015.02.151 

To appear in: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications

Received Date: 19 February 2015    Accepted Date: 25 February 2015

Alexander Lerchl , Melanie Klose , Karen Grote , Adalbert F.X. Wilhelm , Oliver

Department of Life Sciences and Chemistry, Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 6, D- 28759 Bremen, Germany.


Tumor promotion by exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields below exposure limits for humans

Results Our study confirms and extends the previously published observations of tumor-promoting effects of life-long RF-EMF exposure. The numbers of both adenomas and carcinomas were significantly increased in the lungs, and carcinomas were significantly elevated in the livers of RF-EMF exposed animals (Fig. 1, Table 1). As compared to the sham-exposed control mice, numbers of animals with bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas (lungs) were doubled at low and moderate SAR levels, and hepatocellular carcinomas were nearly or more than doubled at low, moderate, and high SAR levels, respectively. The numbers of multiple tumors were found to be significantly elevated at 0.04 W/kg (bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas, Table S1). The numbers of animals with lymphomas were increased 2.5 fold at moderate SAR levels (Fig. 1, Table 1). No increased tumor numbers were found in the brains, kidneys, and spleens of the exposed animals. Here the tumor rates were well below 10%. As expected, survival times in all ENU-treated animals were much lower than in cage controls, but not affected by exposure (Fig. S1). Body weights of (sham-) exposed animals were only slightly different from untreated, unexposed cagecontrol mice (Fig. S2). Figure 2 shows a comparison of the findings of the previous and the present study for the lung tumors due to exposure for a nominal SAR level of 0.4 W/kg (moderate) since this one was used in both studies. It is obvious that both studies are in good agreement.

To address the debates about both the usefulness of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) in general [8,9,10], and the proper statistical analysis of replication studies [11,12,13], we additionally performed a Bayesian analysis. Exemplary analysis results for the lung tumors due to exposure at moderate levels as compared to sham-exposure are presented in Fig. 3. The hypothesis of no difference between the exposed and the sham-exposed animals is outside the 99% prediction interval for all analyses no matter whether an uninformative prior is used or an informative one based on the results from the previous study. As can be expected from the significance of the results in [4], the posterior distribution derived from the informative prior is shifted towards the right and the prediction intervals are further away from the hypothesis of no difference

Abstract: The vast majority of in vitro and in vivo studies did not find cancerogenic effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF), i.e. emitted by mobile phones and base stations. Previously published results from a pilot study with carcinogen-treated mice, however, suggested tumor-promoting effects of RF-EMF (Tillmann et al., 2010). We have performed a replication study using higher numbers of animals per group and including two additional exposure levels (0 (sham), 0.04, 0.4 and 2 W/kg SAR). We could confirm and extend the originally reported findings. Numbers of tumors of the lungs and livers in exposed animals were significantly higher than in sham-exposed controls. In addition, lymphomas were also found to be significantly elevated by exposure. A clear dose-response effect is absent. We hypothesize that these tumor- promoting effects may be caused by metabolic changes due to exposure. Since many of the tumor-promoting effects in our study were seen at low to moderate exposure levels (0.04 and 0.4 W/kg SAR), thus well below exposure limits for the users of mobile phones, further studies are warranted to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Our findings may help to understand the repeatedly reported increased incidences of brain tumors in heavy users of mobile phones.

Key words: Electromagnetic fields, cancer, tumor promotion, mice




Int J Fertil Steril. 2015 Apr-Jun; 9(1): 129–136.
Published online 2015 Apr 21.
PMCID: PMC4410031

In Vitro Effect of Cell Phone Radiation on Motility, DNA Fragmentation and Clusterin Gene Expression in Human Sperm

Adel Zalata, M.D,1 Ayman Z El-Samanoudy, M.D,1 Dalia Shaalan, M.D,1 Youssef El-Baiomy, M.D,2 and  Taymour Mostafa, M.D3,*



Use of cellular phones emitting radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) has been increased exponentially and become a part of everyday life. This study aimed to investigate the effects of in vitro RF-EMF exposure emitted from cellular phones on sperm motility index, sperm DNA fragmentation and seminal clusterin (CLU) gene expression.

Materials and Methods

In this prospective study, a total of 124 semen samples were grouped into the following main categories: i. normozoospermia (N, n=26), ii. asthenozoospermia (A, n=32), iii. asthenoteratozoospermia (AT, n=31) and iv. oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT, n=35). The same semen samples were then divided into two portions non-exposed and exposed samples to cell phone radiation for 1 hour. Before and immediately after exposure, both aliquots were subjected to different assessments for sperm motility, acrosin activity, sperm DNA fragmentation and CLU gene expression. Statistical differences were analyzed using paired t student test for comparisons between two sub-groups where p<0.05 was set as significant.


There was a significant decrease in sperm motility, sperm linear velocity, sperm linearity index, and sperm acrosin activity, whereas there was a significant increase in sperm DNA fragmentation percent, CLU gene expression and CLU protein levels in the exposed semen samples to RF-EMF compared with non-exposed samples in OAT>AT>A>N groups, respectively (p<0.05).


Cell phone emissions have a negative impact on exposed sperm motility index, sperm acrosin activity, sperm DNA fragmentation and seminal CLU gene expression, especially in OAT cases.

Keywords: Cell Phone, Spermatozoa, Electromagnetic Radiation, Sperm Motility
Health Phys. 2014 Nov;107(5):369-81. doi: 10.1097/HP.0000000000000129.

Quantification of RF-exposure of the fetus using anatomical CAD-models in three different gestational stages.


This study analyzes the exposure of pregnant women and their fetuses in three different gestational stages to electromagnetic radiation in the radio frequency range in the near- and the far-field using numerical modeling. For far-field exposure, the power density at which the basic restriction for the whole body SAR is reached is calculated for both the mother and the fetus at whole body resonance and at frequencies between 450 MHz and 2,450 MHz. The near-field exposure is assessed at 450 MHz, 900 MHz, and 2,450 MHz using half wavelength dipoles as generic sources located at different locations around the abdomen of the mother. For the investigated cases, the exposure of the mother is always below or on the order of magnitude of the basic restriction for exposure at the reference level. When applying the reference levels for the general public, the fetus is sufficiently shielded by the mother. However, the basic restrictions for general public exposure can be exceeded in the fetus when the mother is exposed at reference levels for occupational conditions. For plane wave exposure at occupational levels, the whole body SAR in the fetus can exceed the basic restrictions for the general population by at least 1.8 dB, and in the near-field of professional devices, the 10 g SAR can be non-compliant with the product standard for the general public by > 3.5 dB.

PMID: 25271926

 DOI: 10.1097/HP.0000000000000129




Epidemiological investigation of risk factors of the pregnant women with early spontaneous abortion in Beijing

Zhou LY, Zhang HX, Lan YL, Li Y, Liang Y, Yu L, Ma YM, Jia CW, Wang SY. Epidemiological investigation of risk factors of the pregnant women with early spontaneous abortion in Beijing. Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine. 2015 Apr 14. [Epub ahead of print]


OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk factors of the pregnant women with early spontaneous abortion [i.e., miscarriages] in Beijing.

METHODS: A total of 34,417 cases of pregnant women were participated in the survey from January 2000 to December 2013. A questionnaire was informed to each woman. The content of questionnaire includes four parts: general condition, obstetrical history, past history and family history, and living environment and habits. The mental condition was evaluated with Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS).

RESULTS: A total of 32,296 questionnaires were collected. The spontaneous abortion rate in the total sample was 3.0%. There was no significant difference between the normal pregnancy group and spontaneous abortion group in terms of general condition, obstetrical and past history (P>0.05). Significant differences between the two groups were found in terms of decoration during pregnancy, keeping pets, near mobile communication base station within 100 m around the residence, drinking during pregnancy, having a cold during pregnancy and SAS (P<0.05). Having a cold during pregnancy, decoration during pregnancy, near mobile communication base station within 100 m around the residence, keeping pets and high SAS were determined the independent risk factors of spontaneous abortion by Logistic regression analysis.

CONCLUSIONS: Having a cold during pregnancy, decoration, keeping pets, near mobile communication base station within 100 m around the residence and high SAS are the independent risk factors of spontaneous abortion in Beijing.



Radiation source might result in DNA damage in embryos. The radiation of mobile communication base station within 100 m around the residence is harmless for normal population, but may still have adverse effect on the vulnerable chromosome structure of embryos. Zareen, et al (7) put the mobile phone in the middle of the incubator to observe the effect of electromagnetic radiation of mobile phones on chick embryo. After 10–15 days, chick embryos in the exposure group had growth retardation. Pulse current electromagnetic field may injure human DNA, manifest as increased micronucleus rate of lymphocyte. The nursing personnel with X-ray exposure history had a SA rate twice of normal population’s. (8) For 969 pregnant women with the gestation less than 10 weeks, 24-h monitors were worn to measure the electromagnetic radiation of all sources they contacted. In the comparison of pregnancy outcomes, it was found that the abortion risk of the pregnant women was increased with the increase of electromagnetic radiation exposure. The pregnant women with high intensity of electromagnetic radiation exposure (16 mG) had significantly increased risk (RR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2, 2.7) than those with low intensity of electromagnetic radiation exposure (<16 mG). In our study, it was found that near mobile base communication station within 100 m around the residence was significantly related to early SA. Therefore, the pregnant women are suggested to stay away from corresponding radiation source.




Effects of prenatal 900 MHz electromagnetic field exposures on the histology of rat kidney.

Abstract Purpose: To research the harmful effects of prenatal exposure of 900 megahertz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF) on kidneys of four-week-old male rats and to determine protective effects of melatonin (MEL) and omega-3 (ω-3). Materials and methods: Twenty-one Wistar albino rats were randomly placed into seven groups as follows: control (Cont), Sham, MEL, ω-3, EMF, EMF+MEL and EMF+ω-3. After mating, three groups (EMF, EMF+MEL, EMF+ ω-3) were exposed to an EMF. In the fourth week subsequent to parturition, six rats were randomly chosen from each group. Mean volume of kidneys and renal cortices, the total number of glomeruli and basic histological structure of kidney were evaluated by stereological and light microscopical methods, respectively. Results: Stereological results determined the mean volume of the kidneys and cortices were significantly increased in EMF-exposed groups compared to the Cont group. However, EMF-unexposed groups were not significantly modified compared to the Cont group. Additionally, the total number of glomeruli was significantly higher in EMF-unexposed groups compared to the Cont group. Alternatively, the number of glomeruli in EMF-exposed groups was decreased compared to the Cont group. Conclusions: Prenatal exposure of rat kidneys to 900 MHz EMF resulted in increased total kidney volume and decreased the numbers of glomeruli. Moreover, MEL and ω-3 prevented adverse effects of EMF on the kidneys.


Mahmut Ulubay1, Ahmad Yahyazadeh2, Ö. Gülsüm Deniz2, Elfide Gizem Kıvrak2, B. Zuhal Altunkaynak2, Gülünar Erdem2, Süleyman Kaplan2*

1Department of Urology, Medical Park Hospital, Samsun, Turkey, and 2Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun, Turkey

Corresponding author: Suleyman Kaplan, PhD, Department of Histology and Embryology Medical School, Ondokuz Mayıs University, 55139, Telephone: +90 533 7207982. Samsun, Turkey. E-mail: skaplan@omu.edu.tr




Carcinogenicity Study of GSM and DCS Wireless Communication Signals in B6C3F1 Mice

Thomas Tillmann,1* Heinrich Ernst,1 Sven Ebert,2 Niels Kuster,2 Wolfgang Behnke,1 Susanne Rittinghausen,1 and Clemens Dasenbrock1{

1Fraunhofer-Institute of Toxicology and Experimental Medicine (ITEM), Hannover, Germany
2Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT’IS Foundation), ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

The purpose of this study using a total of 1170 B6C3F1 mice was to detect and evaluate possible carcinogenic effects in mice exposed to radio-frequency-radiation (RFR) from Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and Digital Personal Communications System (DCS) handsets as emitted by handsets operating in the center of the communication band, that is, at 902 MHz (GSM) and 1747 MHz (DCS). Restrained mice were exposed for 2 h per day, 5 days per week over a period of 2 years to three different whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (SAR) levels of 0.4, 1.3, 4.0 mW/g bw (SAR), or were sham exposed. Regarding the organ-related tumor incidence, pairwise Fisher’s test did not show any significant increase in the incidence of any particular tumor type in the RF exposed groups as compared to the sham exposed group. Interestingly, while the incidences of hepatocellular carcinomas were similar in EMF and sham exposed groups, in both studies the incidences of liver adenomas in males decreased with increasing dose levels; the incidences in the high dose groups were statistically significantly different from those in the sham exposed groups. Comparison to published tumor rates in untreated mice revealed that the observed tumor rates were within the range of historical control data. In conclusion, the present study produced no evidence that the exposure of male and female B6C3F1 mice to wireless GSM and DCS radio frequency signals at a whole body absorption rate of up to 4.0 W/kg resulted in any adverse health effect or had any cumulative influence on the incidence or severity of neoplastic and non-neoplastic background lesions, and thus the study did not provide any evidence of RF possessing a carcinogenic potential. Bioelectromagnetics 28:173–187, 2007. ß 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Key words: radiofrequency; mobile phones; cancer; animal study

 Tillman 2007




Int J Radiat Biol. 2010 Dec;86(12):1106-16. doi: 10.3109/09553002.2010.502960. Epub 2010 Sep 1.

Pulse modulated 900 MHz radiation induces hypothyroidism and apoptosis in thyroid cells: a light, electron microscopy and immunohistochemical study.



In the present study we investigated the possible histopathological effects of pulse modulated Radiofrequency (RF) fields on the thyroid gland using light microscopy, electron microscopy and immunohistochemical methods.


Two months old male Wistar rats were exposed to a 900 MHz pulse-modulated RF radiation at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1.35 Watt/kg for 20 min/day for three weeks. The RF signals were pulse modulated by rectangular pulses with a repetition frequency of 217 Hz and a duty cycle of 1:8 (pulse width 0.576 ms). To assess thyroid endocrine disruption and estimate the degree of the pathology of the gland, we analysed structural alterations in follicular and colloidal diameters and areas, colloid content of the follicles, and height of the follicular epithelium. Apoptosis was confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy and assessing the activites of an initiator (caspase-9) and an effector (caspase-3) caspases that are important markers of cells undergoing apoptosis.


Morphological analyses revealed hypothyrophy of the gland in the 900 MHz RF exposure group. The results indicated that thyroid hormone secretion was inhibited by the RF radiation. In addition, we also observed formation of apoptotic bodies and increased caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities in thyroid cells of the rats that were exposed to modulated RF fields.


The overall findings indicated that whole body exposure to pulse-modulated RF radiation that is similar to that emitted by global system for mobile communications (GSM) mobile phones can cause pathological changes in the thyroid gland by altering the gland structure and enhancing caspase-dependent pathways of apoptosis.

PMID: 20807179     
DOI: 10.3109/09553002.2010.502960



Int J Radiat Biol. 2010 Dec;86(12):1106-16. doi: 10.3109/09553002.2010.502960. Epub 2010 Sep 1.

Dirty Electricity Elevates Blood Sugar Among Electrically Sensitive Diabetics and May Explain Brittle Diabetes


Environmental & Resource Studies, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada

Transient electromagnetic fields (dirty electricity), in the kilohertz range on electrical wiring, may be contributing to elevated blood sugar levels among diabetics and pre- diabetics. By closely following plasma glucose levels in four Type 1 and Type 2 diabetics, we find that they responded directly to the amount of dirty electricity in their environment. In an electromagnetically clean environment, Type 1 diabetics require less insulin and Type 2 diabetics have lower levels of plasma glucose. Dirty electricity, generated by electronic equipment and wireless devices, is ubiquitous in the environment. Exercise on a treadmill, which produces dirty electricity, increases plasma glucose. These findings may explain why brittle diabetics have difficulty regulating blood sugar. Based on estimates of people who suffer from symptoms of electrical hypersensitivity (3–35%), as many as 5–60 million diabetics worldwide may be affected. Exposure to electromagnetic pollution in its various forms may account for higher plasma glucose levels and may contribute to the misdiagnosis of diabetes. Reducing exposure to electromagnetic pollution by avoidance or with specially designed GS filters may enable some diabetics to better regulate their blood sugar with less medication and borderline or pre-diabetics to remain non diabetic longer.

Keywords Radio frequency; Transients; Dirty electricity; Power quality; Plasma glucose; Blood sugar; Insulin; GS filters; Electrohypersensitivity; Brittle diabetes; Type 3 diabetes; Type 2 diabetes; Type 1 diabetes.






First Study On 4G/LTE Cell Phone Radiation Shows It Affects Brain Activity

SEPTEMBER 25, 2013

New peer-reviewed research finds that 30 minutes’ exposure to LTE [4G] cellphone radiation affects brain activity on both sides of the brain.





Is 5G Cellular Technology Harmful to Our Health?

August 17, 2016 (Updated August 19)





Effect of radiofrequency radiation from Wi-Fi devices on mercury release from amalgam restorations


Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering201614:12

DOI: 10.1186/s40201-016-0253-z

©  The Author(s). 2016

Received: 30 June 2015

Accepted: 1 July 2016

Published: 13 July 2016



Dental amalgam is composed of approximately 50% elemental mercury. Despite concerns over the toxicity of mercury, amalgam is still the most widely used restorative material. Wi-Fi is a rapidly using local area wireless computer networking technology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that evaluates the effect of exposure to Wi-Fi signals on mercury release from amalgam restorations.


Standard class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of 20 non-carious extracted human premolars. The teeth were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 10). The control group was stored in non-environment. The specimens in the experimental groups were exposed to a radiofrequency radiation emitted from standard Wi Fi devices at 2.4 GHz for 20 min. The distance between the Wi-Fi router and samples was 30 cm and the router was exchanging data with a laptop computer that was placed 20 m away from the router.

The concentration of mercury in the artificial saliva in the groups was evaluated by using a cold-vapor atomic absorption Mercury Analyzer System. The independent t test was used to evaluate any significant differences in mercury release between the two groups.


The mean (±SD) concentration of mercury in the artificial saliva of the Wi-Fi exposed teeth samples was 0.056 ± .025 mg/L, while it was only 0.026 ± .008 mg/L in the non-exposed control samples. This difference was statistically significant (P =0.009).


Exposure of patients with amalgam restorations to radiofrequency radiation emitted from conventional Wi-Fi devices can increase mercury release from amalgam restorations.


Amalgam Wi-Fi Mercury release, Radiofrequency, Electromagnetic fields


Dental amalgam is still the most widely used restorative material in the last 150 years especially in posterior teeth because of its high mechanical strength, durability, ease of manipulation, and low cost [12345]. Dental amalgam is an alloy comprised of 50 % elemental mercury and a mixture of other metals such as silver, tin, copper, and sometimes palladium, indium and zinc [678]. Dental amalgam is considered as the primary source of continuous mercury exposure in general population [191011]. Mercury is a toxic element which can damage various organs such as central nervous system, renal, respiratory and hematologic systems [1213]. Because of the mercury toxicity, the use of mercury has been banned in some European countries [14]. The amount of mercury which releases from amalgam restorations depends on several factors such as number and size of the fillings, composition of amalgam, any other factors that causes load over the restorations like tooth brushing, chewing habits,and bruxism [815].

Wi-Fi is a local area wireless computer networking technology and has been used drastically in houses and public places such as schools and hospitals during recent years [16]. It allows electronic devices such as personal computers, video-game consoles, smart phones, digital cameras and tablet computers to network using Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 standards. These standards mainly use the 2.5 gigahertz (12 cm) UHF and 5 gigahertz (6 cm) SHF ISM radio bands [17]. The lower cost and easier deployment of these devices than wired computer networks lead to rapidly increase of Wi-Fi devices [18]. However, this also raised great public concern about the potential adverse effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) emitted from these devices [19].

The adverse health impacts associated to exposure to some common sources of electromagnetic fields including laptop computers, mobile phones, MRI and mobile phone jammers have been evaluated by our laboratory in our previous investigations [2021222324]. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that evaluates the effect of exposure to Wi-Fi signals on mercury release from amalgam restorations.


Teeth samples

This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Twenty non-carious premolar teeth which were extracted as a part of orthodontic treatment were used in this study. The teeth were stored in isotonic saline solution for not longer than 3 months after surface debridement. The teeth were randomly divided into 2 groups of exposure and control, each containing 10 teeth.

Amalgam fillings

Standard class V cavities (3mm length, 2mm depth and 5 mm width) were prepared on the buccal surface using carbide burs (SS White Burs, Lakewood, NJ) and a high speed turbine under water spray. The cavities were restored with Cinalux (non-gama-2, spherical amalgam, Faghihi Dental, Tehran, Iran) amalgam. The amalgams were triturated according to manufacturers’ directions, and then they were condensed incrementally towards the cavity walls. All the procedures for restoration of the cavities were performed by the same clinician. The restored teeth were plunged in saline solution at 37° C for 14 days because as it was discussed by Muller Miny et al., the mercury release from amalgam restorations decrease gradually to a constant level 14 days after the filling [25]. Following that and before exposing the teeth, samples were poured into plastic tubes filled with artificial saliva. The thickness of the artificial saliva covered over teeth samples was 1.5 cm to mimic soft tissue.

Wi-Fi exposure

The exposure group was exposed to radiofrequency radiation emitted from standard Wi-Fi devices at 2.4 GHz for 20 min. The distance between the Wi-Fi router (D-Link, China) and samples was 30 cm and the router was exchanging data with a laptop computer that was placed 20 m away from the router. The control group was kept outside the experiment room. The geometry used for exposure is shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 1The geometry used for exposure of the teeth samples

Mercury measurement

Based on our previous experiments, it was clearly revealed that the pre-exposure mercury concentration in the saliva containing teeth samples with exactly identical fillings (the same cavities and amalgam type), was the same for all samples (the differences were not statistically significant). Therfore, the mercury levels were measured in the artificial saliva after exposure by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS; Analytical Jena, vario 6, Germany).

Statistical analysis

The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) (http://www-01.ibm.com/software/analytics/ spss). The independent t test was used to compare the level of mercury release in the exposure and control groups to identify any statistically significant differences. P value <0.05 was considered significant.