Electromagnetic interactions of human skin and other complex biological systems

Potential Risks to Human Health from Future Sub-MM Communication Systems : Paul Ben-Ishai, PhD and Yuri Feldman

presented at Expert Forum: Wireless Radiation and Human Health, Hebrew University Medical School, January 23-26 2017

Published on Feb 15, 2017

This is from the 2017 Expert Forum on Wireless and Health. All presentations from this conference are availible at



Research finds human sweat ducts are antennas for millimeter waves (5G),

resulting in high levels of radiation absorption by sweat ducts; presented at NIH/NIEHS sponsored conference


The remote sensing of mental stress from the electromagnetic reflection coefficient of human skin in the sub-THz range

July 2012  Safrai E1, Ishai PBCaduff APuzenko APolsman AAgranat AJFeldman Y



Recent work has demonstrated that the reflection coefficient of human skin in the frequency range from 95 to 110 GHz (W band) mirrors the temporal relaxation of stress induced by physical exercise. In this work, we extend these findings to show that in the event of a subtle trigger to stress, such as mental activity, a similar picture of response emerges. Furthermore, the findings are extended to cover not only the W band (75-110 GHz), but also the frequency band from 110 to 170 GHz (D band). We demonstrate that mental stress, induced by the Stroop effect and recorded by the galvanic skin response (GSR), can be correlated to the reflection coefficient in the aforementioned frequency bands. Intriguingly, a light physical stress caused by repeated hand gripping clearly showed an elevated stress level in the GSR signal, but was largely unnoted in the reflection coefficient in the D band. The implication of this observation requires further validation.

Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  PMID: 22170380   DOI: 10.1002/bem.21698



Human skin as arrays of helical antennas in the millimeter and submillimeter wave range.

March 2008  Feldman Y1, Puzenko ABen Ishai PCaduff AAgranat AJ.




Recent studies of the minute morphology of the skin by optical coherence tomography showed that the sweat ducts in human skin are helically shaped tubes, filled with a conductive aqueous solution. A computer simulation study of these structures in millimeter and submillimeter wave bands show that the human skin functions as an array of low-Q helical antennas. Experimental evidence is presented that the spectral response in the sub-Terahertz region is governed by the level of activity of the perspiration system. It is also correlated to physiological stress as manifested by the pulse rate and the systolic blood pressure.

PMID:  18517913  DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.128102


Microwave dielectric spectroscopy study of water dynamics in normal and contaminated raw bovine milk.

June 1, 2017     Agranovich D1, Ishai PB2, Katz G3, Bezman D3, Feldman Y4.


The role of water in bovine milk is more complicated than that of a background solvent. To understand the interaction between water and the constituents of milk, an extensive dielectric study of the γ-dispersion of raw bovine milk was carried out over the frequency range 0.1-50GHz and the interval of temperatures (10°C-42°C). Samples were provided by utilizing an extended donor pool. The results reveal that the temperature dependence of the characteristic relaxation times is described by the Arrhenius law. Furthermore, it conforms to a Meyer-Neldel compensation, whereby the pre-factor of the relaxation times is dependent on the activation energy. This entropy/enthalpy compensation is traced to the interaction between bulk water dynamic clusters and other milk constituents. A statistical correlation between the Somatic Cell Count, a traditional measure of milk quality, and the relaxation times is provided as well, opening new vistas for the industrial classification of milk.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:  Bovine milk; Conductivity; Dielectric relaxation; Dielectric spectroscopy; Mastitis; Meyer-Neldel compensation; Somatic cell count; Water

PMID: 28384618  DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2017.03.051










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